Carina’s research looks at transnational organized crime with a maritime element and explores ways of responding to ivory and heroin trafficking to and from East Africa, specifically Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique. In order to inform possible responses, she draws from the international counter-piracy response to Somali piracy. Africa is increasingly becoming a major role player in illicit organized criminal activities undertaken to supply demand in other world regions. This is having adverse effects on security, governance, and development in the implicated regions. To counter this, there needs to be an international concerted effort by various stakeholders, private and public. The effective international response to Somali piracy provides valuable insights into a multi-stakeholder approach to address a transnational threat in the same geographic region.  Subjects addressed include organized crime, law, governance, development, state failure and law enforcement. The research is informed by interviews and participant observation undertaken in East Africa and elsewhere in order to compliment the secondary data.