GRG   Golden Oldies
List by Andrzej Krasiński
Web version by Charles Hellaby
Thanks to Hans-Juergen Schmidt for some updates

These are republications in English of important old papers in General Relativity

Criteria & Procedures for Golden Oldies:   Gen. Rel. Grav. 39, no 7, 1043 (2007)
Golden Oldies series Editor:   Malcolm MacCallum.
Golden Oldies Advisory Board:   George Ellis, Andrzej Krasiński, Roy Maartens, Gary Gibbons, Hubert Goenner.

Editorial introducing "Golden Oldies" series, A. Held, Gen. Rel. Grav. 25, no 12, 1211 (1993)
Editorial: "Golden Oldies", A. Krasiński, Gen. Rel. Grav. 29, no 3, 357 (1997)

PRINTER FRIENDLY VERSION

                -1 (a) On the Effect of Rotating Distant Masses in Einstein's Theory of Gravitation
By Hans Thirring
(Not listed as part of the GO series when published)
Originally published: Physikalische Zeitschrift 19, 33 (1918).
Original title: Über die Wirkung Rotierender Ferner Massen in der Einsteinschen Gravitationstheorie.
Translated by: B. Mashhoon, F.W. Hehl and D.S. Theiss
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 16, no 8, 712-25 (1984)
(b) Correction to My Paper: "On the Effect of Rotating Distant Masses in Einstein's Theory of Gravitation"
By Hans Thirring
Originally published: Physikalische Zeitschrift 22, 29 (1921).
Original title: Berichtigung zu Meiner Arbeit: "Über die Wirkung Rotierender Massen in der Einsteinschen Gravitationstheorie"
Translated by: B. Mashhoon, F.W. Hehl and D.S. Theiss
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 16, no 8, 725-27 (1984)
(c) On the Influence of the Proper Rotation of Central Bodies on the Motions of Planets and Moons According to Einstein's Theory of Gravitation
By Josef Lense and Hans Thirring
Originally published: Physikalische Zeitschrift 19, 156 (1918).
Original title: Über den Einfluß der Eigenrotation der Zentralkörper auf die Bewegung der Planeten und Monde nach der Einsteinschen Gravitationstheorie
Translated by: B. Mashhoon, F.W. Hehl and D.S. Theiss
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 16, no 8, 727-41 (1984)
Critical Discussion: B. Mashhoon, F.W. Hehl and D.S. Theiss, p. 742-9
Biographical intro: B. Mashhoon, F.W. Hehl and D.S. Theiss, p. 711
These are all part of the paper "On the gravitational effects of rotating masses: The Thirring-Lense papers",
B. Mashhoon, F.W. Hehl and D.S. Theiss, Gen. Rel. Grav. 16, no 8, 711-50 (1984)
                0 Contributions to the Relativistic Mechanics of Continuous Media
By Jürgen Ehlers
Originally published: Akademie der Wissenschaften und Literatur (Mainz), Abhandlungen der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse
[Proceedings of the Mathematical-Natural Science Section of the Mainz Academy of Science and Literature]

Nr. 11, 792-837 (1961).
Original title: Beiträge zur Relativistischen Mechanik Kontinuierlicher Medien
Translated by: G.F.R. Ellis and P.K.S. Dunsby
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 25, no 12, 1225-66 (1993)
Editorial note by: A. Held, p. 1225 (positioned as the abstract to the Ehlers paper)
                1 On a Stationary Cosmology in the Sense of Einstein's Theory of Gravitation
By Kornel Lanczos in Freiburg i. B. [im Breisgau]
With four figures. (Received on 13th November 1923)
Originally published: Zeitschrift für Physik 21, 73 (1924).
Original title: Über eine Stationäre Kosmologie im Sinne der Einsteinschen Gravitationstheorie
Translated by: C. Hoenselaers
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 29, no 3, 363 (1997)
Editorial note by: A. Krasiński, p. 359
Biography by: A. Krasiński, p. 360
                2 The Expanding Universe
By the Abbé Georges Lemaître
Originally published: Annales de la Société Scientifique de Bruxelles A53, 51 (1933).
Original title: l'Univers en Expansion
Translated by: M. A. H. MacCallum
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 29, no 5, 641 (1997)
Editorial note by: A. Krasiński, p. 637
Biography by: A. Krasiński, p. 639
                3 Effect of Inhomogeneity on Cosmological Models
By Richard C. Tolman
Norman Bridge Laboratory of Physics, California Institute of Technology
Communicated February 12, 1934
Originally published: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 20, 169 (1934).
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 29, no 7, 935 (1997)
Editorial note by: A. Krasiński, p. 931
Biography by: A. Krasiński, p. 932
                4 On the Stability of Cosmological Models
By N. R. Sen
[Calcutta, University College of Science]
With 2 figures. (Received August 21, 1934.)
Originally published: Zeitschrift für Astrophysik 9, 215 (1934).
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 29, no 11, 1477 (1997)
Editorial note by: A. Krasiński, p. 1473
Biography by: Amal Kumar Raychaudhuri, p. 1474
                5 Observable Relations in Relativistic Cosmology. II.
By William Hunter McCrea (Belfast)
Received January 19, 1939
Originally published: Zeitschrift für Astrophysik 18, 98 (1939).
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 30, no 2, 315 (1998)
Editorial note by: A. Krasiński, p. 311
Biography by: W. H. McCrea, p. 312
                6 A Note on Some General Solutions of the Einstein Field Equations in a Spherically Symmetric World
By Paul Kustaanheimo and Bertil Qvist
Communicated May 19th 1947 by E. J. Nyström and G. Järnefelt
Originally published: Societas Scientiarum Fennica. Commentationes Physico-Mathematicae XIII.16, 1 (1948).
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 30, no 4, 663 (1998)
Editorial note by: A. Krasiński, p. 659
Biography by: Boris Sjöberg, p. 660 (Qvist)
Juhana Kustaanheimo, p. 661 (Kustaanheimo)
                7 The Formation of the Nebulae
By William B. Bonnor Ph.D.
[Current address: School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London,
Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, U.K]
With 3 Figures. (Eingegangen am 9. Januar 1956)
Originally published: Zeitschrift für Astrophysik 39, 143 (1956).
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 30, no 7, 1113 (1998)
Editorial note by: A. Krasiński, p. 1111
Biography by: W. B. Bonnor, p. 1112
                8 Isotropic Space with Discrete Gravitational-Field Sources
(On the theory of a nonhomogeneous isotropic Universe)

By Mikhail Fedorovich Shirokov and Iosif Zalmanovich Fisher
[Moscow State University and the State University of Belarus]
Received July 15, 1961
Originally published: Astronomicheskiy Zhurnal 39, 899 (1962).
Original title: Izotropnoe Prostranstvo c Diskretnymi Istochnikami Gravitacyonnogo Polya
(K teorii neodnorodnoy izotropnoy vselennoy)
Translated by: According to the information from the American Institute of Physics, the name of the translator is not available.
Soviet Astronomy A. J. 6, 699 (1963)
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 30, no 9, 1411 (1998)
Editorial note by: A. Krasiński, p. 1407
Biography by: A. Krasiński, p. 1408 (Shirokov)
Mikhail N. Polozov, p. 1409 (Fisher)
                9 Some Relativistic Cosmological Models
A dissertation presented to the faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Texas
in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

By Ronald Kantowski , B. S. in Physics, Austin, Texas, July 1966
[Current address: Department of Physics, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, U. S. A.]
Originally published: Never published before; circulated as a preprint
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 30, no 11, 1665 (1998)
Editorial note by: A. Krasiński, p. 1663
Biography by: R. Kantowski, p. 1663
                10 (a) The External Field of a Radiating Star in General Relativity
By Prahalad Chunilal Vaidya [Benares Hindu University]
[Current address: Department of Mathematics, Gujarat Universidy, Ahmedabad 380 009, India]
[March 22, 1943]
Originally published: Current Science 12, 183 (1943)
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 31, no 1, 119 (1999)
(b) The Gravitational Field of a Radiating Star
By Prahalad Chunilal Vaidya
(Springer Research Scholar, Bombay University; V. P. Mahavidya av. 4, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Anand)
Received April 27, 1950
(Communicated by Prof. V. V. Narlikar, F. A. Sc.)
Originally published: Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences A33, 264 (1951)
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 31, no 1, 121 (1999)
(c) "Newtonian" Time in General Relativity
By Prahalad Chunilal Vaidya [Vallabh Vidyanagar, Anand, India]
[July 26]
Originally published: Nature 171, no 4345, 260 (1953)
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 31, no 1, 137 (1999)
Editorial note by: A. Krasiński, p. 115
Biography by: P. C. Vaidya, p. 116
                11 (a) On Some Static Solutions of Einstein's Gravitational Field Equations in a spherically symmetric case
By Hidekazu Nariai
Institute of Astronomy, Faculty of Science, Tôhoku University
(Received November 30, 1950)
Communicated by Prof. Z. Hitotuyanagi
Originally published: Scientific Reports of the Tôhoku University 34, 160 (1950)
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 31, no 6, 951 (1999)
(b) On a New Cosmological Solution of Einstein's Field Equations of Gravitation
By Hidekazu Nariai
(Received April 10, 1951)
Communicated by Prof. Z. Hitotuyanagi
Originally published: Scientific Reports of the Tôhoku University 35, 46 (1951)
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 31, no 6, 963 (1999)
Editorial note by: A. Krasiński, p. 945
Biography by: Kenji Tomita, p. 948
                12 On a Class of Solutions of the Gravitation Equations of Relativity
By B. Datt
Originally published: Zeitschrift für Physik 108, 314 (1938)
Original title: Über eine Klasse von Lösungen der Gravitationsgleichungen der Relativität
Translated by: Herbert Pfister
Translation proofread by
John Stewart
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 31, no 10, 1619 (1999)
Editorial note by: A. Krasiński, p. 1615
Biography by: Missing and still wanted.
                13 Spherically Symmetrical Models in General Relativity
By Hermann Bondi
Originally published: Mon. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc. 107, 410 (1947)
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 31, no 11, 1783 (1999)
Editorial note by: A. Krasiński, p. 1777
Biography by: H. Bondi, p. 1780
                14 (a) On the Curvature of Space
By Aleksandr Friedman in Petersburg.
With one figure. (Received on 29. June 1922.)
Originally published: Zeitschrift für Physik 10, 377-386 (1922)
Original title: Über die Krümmung des Raumes
Translated by: George F. R. Ellis and Henk van Elst
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 31, no 12, 1991 (1999)
(b) On the Possibility of a World with Constant Negative Curvature of Space.
By Aleksandr Friedmann in Petersburg.
(Received on 7. January 1924.)

[The two mutually inconsistent spellings of the author's name are copied from the original papers. The correct transcription from Russian would in fact be "Fridman", but the form "Friedmann" seems to have become the favourite in the English-language literature. Until experts give a different verdict, this habit will be followed here.]
Originally published: Zeitschrift für Physik 21, 326-332 (1924)
Original title: Über die Möglichkeit einer Welt mit Konstanter Negativer Krümmung des Raumes
Translated by: George F. R. Ellis and Henk van Elst
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 31, no 12, 2001 (1999)
Editorial note by: A. Krasiński and George F. R. Ellis p. 1985
Biography by: A. Krasiński, p. 1989
See also Addendum in Gen. Rel. Grav. 32, 1937 (2000)
                15 Vacuum Quantum Fluctuations in Curved Space and the Theory of Gravitation
By Academician Andriey Dmitrievich Sakharov
(Original article submitted August 28, 1967.)
Originally published: Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR 177, 70 (1967)
Original title: Vakuumnye Kvantovye Fluktuacii v Iskrivlennom Prostranstve i Teoria Gravitacii
Translated by: "Consultants Bureau" (a Division of Plenum Publishing Corporation New York).
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 32, no 2, 365 (2000)
Editorial note by: H. J. Schmidt p. 361
Biography by: H. J. Schmidt p. 362
                16 Relativistic Cosmology. I
By Amalkumar Raychaudhuri
Theoretical Physics Department, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Calcutta, India
[Current address for correspondence: Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Calcutta 700 032, India]
(Received December 28, 1953)
Originally published: Physical Review 98, 1123 (1955)
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 32, no 4, 749 (2000)
Editorial note by: John Earman and Amal Kumar Raychaudhuri, p. 743
Biography by: A. K. Raychaudhuri, p. 746
                17 (a) An Example of a New Type of Cosmological Solutions of Einstein's Field Equations of Gravitation
By Kurt Gödel
Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey
Originally published: Reviews of Modern Physics 21, 447 (1949)
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 32, no 7, 1409 (2000)
(b) Rotating Universes in General Relativity Theory
By Kurt Gödel
Originally published: Proceedings of the International Congress of Mathematicians , edited by L. M. Graves et al., Cambridge, Mass. 1952, vol. 1, p. 175.
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 32, no 7, 1419 (2000)
Editorial note by: George F. R. Ellis, p. 1399
Biography by: A. Krasiński, p. 1407
                18 The Classification of Spaces Defining Gravitational Fields
By Aleksey Zinovjevitch Petrov
(Kazan University. Chair of Geometry)
Originally published: Uchenye Zapiski Kazanskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta im. V. I. Ulyanovicha-Lenina
[Scientific Proceedings of Kazan State University, named after V.I. Ulyanov-Lenin],

114, (8) 55-69 (1954)).
Jubilee (1804-1954) Collection.
Original title: Klassifikacya Prostranstv Opredelyayushchikh Polya Tyagoteniya.
Translated by: J. Jezierski and M.A.H. MacCallum
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 32, no 8, 1665 (2000)
Editorial note by: Malcolm A. H. MacCallum, p. 1661
Biography by: Alexander Gusev, p. 1663
                19 (a) A Newtonian Expanding Universe
By Edward Arthur Milne (Oxford)
(Received 7 March 1934)
Originally published: Quart. J. Math. Oxford 5, 64-72 (1934)
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 32, no 9, 1939 (2000)
(b) Newtonian Universes and the Curvature of Space
By William Hunter McCrea (London) and Edward Arthur Milne (Oxford)
(Received 7 March 1934)
Originally published: Quart. J. Math. Oxford 5, 73-80 (1934)
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 32, no 9, 1949 (2000)
Editorial note by: A. Krasiński, p. 1933
Biography by: A. Krasiński, p. 1935 (Milne)
See bio for GO5 plus a note on p. 1936 (McCrea)
                20 Radiation States and the Problem of Energy in General Relativity
Lectures given at the Collège de France on the 17th December 1960 and 7th January 1961
in the setting of the seminar of mathematical physics chaired by Professor A. Lichnerowicz.

By Louis Bel
Originally published: Cahiers de Physique 16, 59-80 (1962)).
Original title: Les états de Radiation et le Problème de l'Énergie en Relativité Générale
Translated by: M.A.H. MacCallum
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 32, no 10, 2047 (2000)
Editorial note by: Jose M. M. Senovilla, p. 2043
Biography by: Jose M. M. Senovilla, p. 2045
                21 (a) T-Models of "Sphere" in General Relativity Theory
By Vladimir Afanasjevich Ruban
A. F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, USSR Academy of Sciences
Submitted 20 September 1968
Originally published: Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoy i Teoreticheskoy Fiziki, Pisma v Redakciyu 8, no 11, 669-673 (1968)
Original title: T-Modeli "Shara" w Obshchey Teorii Otnositelnosti
Translated by: The name of the translator was not given in the journal and was not disclosed by the American Physical Society.
Soviet Physics JETP (Lett.) 8, 414-417 (1968)
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 33, no 2, 369 (2001)
(b) Spherically Symmetric T-Models in the General Theory of Relativity
By Vladimir Afanasjevich Ruban
Submitted November 17, 1968, resubmitted February 28, 1969
Originally published: Zhurnal Eksperimentalnoy i Teoreticheskoy Fiziki 56 1914-1928 (1969)
Original title: Sfericheski Simmetrichnye T-Modeli v Obshchey Teorii Otnositelnosti
Translated by: G. Volkoff
Soviet Physics JETP 29, 1027-1034 (1969)
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 33, no 2, 375 (2001)
Editorial note by: A. Krasiński, p. 363
Biography by: Irina Dymnikova, p. 366
                22 On the Three-Dimensional Spaces which Admit a Continuous Group of Motions
By Luigi Bianchi
Originally published: Memorie di Matematica e di Fisica della Societa Italiana delle Scienze, Serie Terza XI, 267-352 (1898)
Original title: Sugli Spazi a Tre Dimensioni che Aammettono un Gruppo Continuo di Movimenti.
Translated by: Robert Jantzen
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 33, no 12, 2171 (2001)
Editorial note by: Robert Jantzen, p. 2157
Biography by: Robert Jantzen, p. 2168
                23 R- and T-Regions in a Spacetime with a Spherically Symmetric Space
By Igor D. Novikov
[current address: Theoretical Astrophysics Institute, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark]
Originally published: Soobshcheniya GAISh
[Communications of the State Shternberg Astronomical Institute]

132, 3-42 (1964)
Original title: R- i T-Oblasti v Prostranstve-Vremeni so Sphericheski Symmetrichnim Prostranstvom
Translated by: S.B. Beisekeev and M.A.H. MacCallum
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 33, no 12, 2259 (2001)
Editorial note by: A. Krasiński, p. 2255
Biography by: Igor D. Novikov, p. 2258
                24 Visual Horizons in World Models
By Wolfgang Rindler
[current address: Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, P.O.Box 830688, Richardson, Texas, 75083-0688, U.S.A. ]
(Received 1956 November 23)
Originally published: Mon. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc. 116, 662-677 (1956)
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 34, no 1, 133 (2002)
Editorial note by: A. Krasiński, p. 131
Biography by: Wolfgang Rindler, p. 132
                25 Lectures on General Relativity
By Andrzej Trautman
current address: Institute of Theoretical Physics, Warsaw University, ul. Hoża 69, 00 681 Warszawa, Poland
Originally published: Never published before, circulated as copies of the typescript.
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 34, no 5, 721 (2002)
Editorial note by: Piotr Chruściel, p. 715
Biography by: Andrzej Trautman, p. 718
                26 Gravitational Collapse: the Role of General Relativity
By Roger Penrose
Department of Mathematics, Birkbeck College - London
[Current address: Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, 24-29 St. Giles, Oxford, OX1 3LB, UK]
Originally published: Rivista del Nuovo Cimento, Numero Speziale I, 252 (1969)
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 34, no 7, 1141 (2002)
Editorial note by: Andrzej Królak, p. 1135
Biography by: Werner Israel, p. 1138
                27 The Field of a Single Centre in Einstein's Theory of Gravitation, and the Motion of a Particle in that Field
By Johannes Droste (Communicated by Prof. H. A. Lorentz)
(Communicated in the meeting of May 27, 1916)
Originally published: Koninklijke Nederlandsche Akademie van Wetenschappen Proceedings 19, 197 (1917)
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 34, no 9, 1545 (2002)
Editorial note by: Tony Rothman, p. 1541
Biography by: Carlo Beenakker, p. 1543
                28 On the Singularities of a Riemannian Manifold
By György Szekeres (Adelaide, S. Australia)
[Current address: Department of Mathematics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia]
Originally published: Publicationes Mathematicae Debrecen 7, 285 (1960)
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 34, no 11, 2001 (2002)
Editorial note by: Peter Szekeres, p. 1995
Biography by: György Szekeres, p. 1999
                29 Relativistic Hydrodynamics
By John Lighton Synge
[Received 16 February, 1937. - Read 18 February, 1937.]
Originally published: Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society ser. 2, 43, 376-416 (1937)
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 34, no 12, 2177 (2002)
Editorial note by: Jürgen Ehlers, p. 2171
Biography by: Peter Hogan, p. 2174
                30 The Bianchi Classification in the Schücking-Behr Approach
Based on a seminar by Engelbert Schücking
Notes taken by Wolfgang Kundt
[Current address: Institut für Astrophysik der Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn]
Originally published: Never published before; existed only as handwritten notes in German.
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 35, no 3, 491 (2003) "The Spatially Homogeneous Cosmological Models"
Editorial note by: A. Krasiński, Christoph G. Behr, Engelbert Schücking, Frank B. Estabrook, Hugo D. Wahlquist, George F. R. Ellis, Robert Jantzen and Wolfgang Kundt, p. 475   (Listed as "Golden Oldie" instead of "Editor's Note")
Biography by: Engelbert Schücking, p. 487 (Schücking)
                31 On the Gravitational Field of a Mass Point According to Einstein's Theory
By K. Schwarzschild
Originally published: Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Phys.-Math. Klasse, 189-196 (1916)
Original title: Über das Gravitationsfeld eines Massenpunktes nach der Einsteinschen Theorie.
Translated by: S. Antoci
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 35, no 5, 951 (2003)
Editorial note by: S. Antoci and D.-E. Liebscher, p. 945
Correction by: J.M.M. Senovilla Gen. Rel. Grav. 39, no 5, 685 (2007)
Biography by: (None)
                32 Empty Space-Times Admitting a Three Parameter Group of Motions
By A.H. Taub (University of Illinois)
[Received May 15, 1950]
Originally published: Annals of Mathematics 53, 472-490 (1951)
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 36, no 12, 2699 (2004)
Editorial note by: M.A.H. MacCallum, p. 2689
Biography by: Bahram Mashhoon, p. 2695
                33 On the General Spherically Symmetric Solutions of Einstein's Gravitational Equations in Vacuo.
By J.T. Jebsen
[Communicated on October 13th, 1920 by H. von Koch and Ivar Fredholm]
Originally published: Arkiv för Matematik, Astronomi och Fysik 15, Nr. 18, 1-9 (1921)
Original title: Über die allgemeinen kugelsymmetrischen Lösungen der Einsteinschen Gravitationsgleichungen im Vakuum
Translated by: S. Antoci and D. Liebscher
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 37, no 12, 2253 (2005)
Editorial note by: S. Deser, p. 2251 ; see also the biography link below.
Correction by J. Ehlers and A. Krasiński Gen. Rel. Grav. 38, no 8, 1329 (2006)
Biography by: Nils Voje Johansen and Finn Ravndal Gen. Rel. Grav. 38, no 3, 537 (2006)
                34 On the Definition of Distance in General Relativity.
By I. M. H. Etherington (University of Edinburg)
[Communicated by Prof. E.T. Whittaker, Sc.D., F.R.S.]
Originally published: Philosophical Magazine, series 7 15, Nr. 18, 761 (1933)
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 39, no 7, 1055 (2007)
Editorial note by: George F.R. Ellis p. 1047
Biography by: Andrzej Krasiński p. 1053
                35 Perturbations of a Cosmological Model and Angular Variations of the Microwave Background.
By R. K. Sachs and A. M. Wolfe
Originally published: Astrophysical Journal 147, 73-90 (1967)
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 39, no 11, 1944 (2007)
Editorial note by: George F.R. Ellis and Jürgen Ehlers p. 1929
Biography by: Rainer Sachs, George Ellis and Andrzej Krasiński, p. 1941 (Sachs)
Arthur M. Wolfe, p. 1942 (Wolfe)
                36 Geometrical Theorems on Einstein's Cosmological Equations.
By Edward Kasner
Originally published: American Journal of Mathematics 43, 217-221 (1921)
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 40, no 4, 872 (2008)
Editorial note by: John Wainwright p. 865
Biography by: Andrzej Krasiński, p. 868
                37 The Cosmological Constant and the Theory of Elementary Particles.
By Yakov Borisovich Zeldovich
Originally published: Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk 95, 209-230 (1968)
Soviet Physics Uspekhi 11, 381-393 (1968)
Original title: Kosmologicheskaya postoyannaya i teoria elementarnykh chastits
Translated by: J. G. Adashko
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 40, no 7, 1562 (2008)
Editorial note by: Varun Sahni and Andrzej Krasiński p. 1557
Biography by: Andrzej Krasiński p. 1560
                38 The Dynamics of General Relativity.
By Richard Arnowitt, Stanley Deser and Charles W. Misner
Originally published: Gravitation: An Introduction to Current Research,
Ed. Louis Witten, Wiley, 1962, pp. 227-265, (Chapter 7).
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 40, no 9, 1997 (2008)
Editorial note by: Jorge Pullin p. 1989
Biography by: Richard Arnowitt p. 1991 (Arnowitt)
Stanley Deser and Andrzej Krasiński p. 1992 (Deser)
Charles W. Misner p. 1993 (Misner)
                39 The Redshift of Extragalactic Nebulae
By Fritz Zwicky
Originally published: Helv. Phys. Acta 6, 110-127 (1933)
Original title: Die Rotverschiebung von extragalaktischen Nebeln
Translated by: Anita Ehlers
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 41, no 1, 207 (2009)
Editorial note by: Jürgen Ehlers p. 203
Biography by: Andrzej Krasiński p. 204
                40 A Theorem on Petrov Types
By Joshua N. Goldberg and Rainer K. Sachs
Originally published: Acta Phys. Pol. 22 (supplement), 13 (1962)
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 41, no 2, 433 (2009)
Editorial note by: Andrzej Krasiński and Maciej Przanowski, p. 421
Biography by: Joshua Goldberg p. 430 (Goldberg)
See bio for GO35 (Sachs)
                41 Relativistic Cosmology
By George F. R. Ellis
Originally published: In: Proceedings of the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi", Course 47: General relativity and cosmology,
Ed. R.K. Sachs, Academic Press, 1971, pp. 104-182.
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 41, no 3, 581 (2009)
Editorial note by: Bill Stoeger, p. 575
Biography by: George Ellis, p. 578
                42 (a) On the Deviation of Geodesics and Null Geodesics, Particularly in Relation to the Properties of Spaces of Constant Curvature and Indefinite Line-Element
By John Lighton Synge
Originally published: Ann. Math. 35, 705-713 (1934)
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 41, no 5, 1206 (2009)
(b) On the Physical Significance of the Riemann Tensor
By Felix A.E. Pirani
Originally published: Acta Physica Polonica 15, 389-405 (1956)
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 41, no 5, 1216 (2009)
Editorial note by: Andrzej Trautman, p. 1195
Biography by: See bio for GO29 (Synge)
Felix Pirani and Andrzej Trautman p. 1199 (Pirani)
                43 On the General Relativity Theory
By Hermann Weyl
Originally published: Physikalische Zeitschrift 24, 230-232 (1923)
Original title: Zur Allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie
Translated by: Anita Ehlers
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 41, no 7, 1661 (2009)
Editorial note by: Jürgen Ehlers, p. 1655
Biography by: Andrzej Krasiński, p. 1657
                44 Exact Solutions of the Field Equations of the General Theory of Relativity
By Pascual Jordan, Jürgen Ehlers and Wolfgang Kundt
Originally published: Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur, Abhandlungen der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse Nr 2, 21-105 (1960)
Original title: Strenge Lösungen der Feldgleichungen der Allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie
Translated by: Anita Ehlers and Manfred Trümper with ample help from Wolfgang Kundt
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 41, no 9, 2191 (2009)
Editorial note by: George Ellis, p. 2179   (see also notes by J. Ehlers, p. 2185)
Biography by: Andrzej Krasiński p. 2182 (Jordan)
Biennial Report 2006/2007 of the Albert Einstein Institute, p. 1899 (Ehlers)
Wolfgang Kundt p. 2184 (Kundt)
                45 A New Class of Vacuum Solutions of the Einstein Field Equations
By R. P. Kerr and A. Schild
Originally published: Atti del Convegno sulla Relativita Generale: Problemi dell' Energia e Onde Gravitazionali, G. Barbera Editore, Firenze 1965, pp. 1-12.
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 41, no 10, 2485-99 (2009)
Editorial note by: Andrzej Krasiński, Enric Verdaguer and Roy Patrick Kerr, p. 2469-84
Biography by: Andrzej Krasiński p. 2482 (Kerr)
Lawrence Shepley Gen. Rel. Grav. 8, no 11, 955-6 (1977) (Schild)
                46(a) Black Hole Equilibrium States, Part I Analytic and Geometric Properties of the Kerr Solutions
By Brandon Carter
Originally published: Black Holes - Les astres occlus, edited by C. deWitt and B. deWitt, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, New York-London-Paris 1973, pp. 61-124.
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 41, no 12, 2874-938 (2009)
Editorial note by: Niky Kamran and Andrzej Krasiński, p. 2867-71
Biography by: Brandon Carter p. 2870-71
(b) Black Hole Equilibrium States, Part II General Theory of Stationary Black Hole States
By Brandon Carter
Originally published: Black Holes - Les astres occlus, edited by C. deWitt and B. deWitt, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, New York-London-Paris 1973, pp. 125-214.
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 42, no 3, 653-744 (2010)
Editorial note by: Marek Abramowicz p. 647-651
                47(a) The Mechanics of Matter Particles in General Relativity
By Myron Mathisson
Originally published: Zeitschrift für Physik 67, 826-44 (1931).
Original title: Die Mechanik des Materieteilchens in der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie
Translated by: Anita Ehlers
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 42, no 4, 989-1010 (2010)
(b) New Mechanics of Material Systems
By Myron Mathisson
Originally published: Acta Physica Polonica 6, 163-200 (1937).
Original title: Neue Mechanik materieller Systeme
Translated by: Anita Ehlers
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 42, no 4, 1011-48 (2010)
Editorial note by: Andrzej Trautman p. 985-6
Biography by: Andrzej Trautman p. 986-7
                48 On the Initial Value Problem of the Equations of Gravitation
By Karl Stellmacher
Originally published: Mathematische Annalen 115, 136-52 (1938)
Original title: Zum Anfangswertproblem der Gravitationsgleichungen
Translated by: Henk van Elst
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 42, no 7, 1769-89 (2010)
Editorial note by: Helmut Friedrich p. 1765
Biography by: Hubert Goenner p. 1766
                49 On Hamilton's Canonical Equations
By Władysław Ślebodziński
Originally published: Bulletins de la Classe des Sciences, Acad. Royale de Belg. 5 no 17, 864-70 (1931).
Original title: Sur les Équations Canoniques de Hamilton
Translated by: Marie-Noëlle Célérier
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 42, no 10, 2529-35 (2010)
Editorial note by: Andrzej Trautman p. 2525
Biography by: Witold Roter p. 2527
                50 Observations in Cosmology
By Jerome Kristian and Rainer K. Sachs
Originally published: Astrophysical Journal 143, 379-99 (1966).
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 43, no 1, 337-58 (2011)
Editorial note by: George Ellis p. 331
Biography by: Andrzej Krasiński, p. 335 (Kristian)
See bio for GO35 (Sachs)
                51 Conformal Treatment of Infinity
By Roger Penrose
Originally published: In Relativity, Groups and Topology, edited by B. de Witt and C. de Witt. Gordon and Breach, New York - London 1964, pp. 565 - 584.
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 43, no 3, 901-22 (2011)
Editorial note by: Helmut Friedrich p. 897
Biography by: See bio for GO26
                52(a) The Physical Reality of Some Normal Spaces of Bianchi
By Tullio Levi-Civita
Originally published: Rendiconti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei 26, 519-31 (1917)
Original title: Realtá Fisica di Alcuni Spazi Normali del Bianchi
Translated by: Robert Jantzen
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 43, no 8, 2307-20 (2011)
                (b) Einsteinian ds2 in Newtonian Fields. IX: The Aanalog of the Logarithmic Potential
By Tullio Levi-Civita
Originally published: Rendiconti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei 28, 101-9 (1919)
Original title: ds2 Einsteiniana in Campi Newtoniani. IX: l'Analogo del Potenziale Logaritmico
Translated by: Robert Jantzen
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 43, no 8, 2321-30 (2011)
Editorial note by: Malcolm A. H. MacCallum p. 2297-306     (references follow bio)
Biography by: Andrzej Krasiński, p. 2301-3
                53 The Beginning of the World from the Point of View of Quantum Theory
By Georges Lemaître
Originally published: Nature 127, 706 (1931)
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 43, no 10, 2929-30 (2011)
Editorial note by: Jean-Pierre Luminet p. 2911-28
Biography by: See bio for GO2
                54 Large Number Coincidences and the Anthropic Principle in Cosmology
By Brandon Carter
Originally published: Confrontation of Cosmological Theories with Observational Data. IAU Symposium No. 63. Ed M. S. Longair. D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht & Boston 1974, pp. 291-298.
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 43, no 11, 3225-33 (2011)
Editorial note by: George F. R. Ellis p. 3213-23
Biography by: See bio for GO46a
                55 Quantum Theory of Weak Gravitational Fields
By Matvei Bronstein
Originally published: Physikalische Zeitschrift der Sowjetunion, Band 9, Heft 2-3, 140-157 (1936).
Original title: Quantentheorie Schwacher Gravitationsfelder
Translated by: M.A. Kurkov, edited by: S. Deser
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 44, no 1, 267-83 (2012)
Editorial note by: Stanley Deser and Alexei Starobinsky p. 263
Biography by: Stanley Deser p. 264
                56(a) 3. On the Theory of Gravitation
By Herman Weyl
Originally published: Annalen der Physik, 54, 117-45 (1917).
Original title: 3. Zur Gravitationstheorie
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 44, no 3, 779-810 (2012)
                (b) 5. Comment on the Axially Symmetric Solutions to Einstein's Equations of Gravitation
By Herman Weyl
Originally published: Annalen der Physik, 59, 185-8 (1919).
Original title: 5. Bemerkung Über die Axialsymmetrischen Lösungen der Einsteinschen Gravitationsgleichungen
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 44, no 3, 811-5 (2012)
                (c) New Solutions of the Einstein Field Equations. B. Explicit Determination of Static, Axially Symmetric Fields. With a Supplement on the Static Two-Body Problem.
By Rudolf Bach and Hermann Weyl
Originally published: Mathematische Zeitschrift, 13, 134-45 (1922).
Original title: Neue Lösungen der Einsteinschen Gravitationsgleichungen. B. Explicite Aufstellung Statischer Axialsymmetrischer Felder. Mit Einem Zusatz über das Statische Zweikörperproblem
Translated by: Gernot Neugebauer and David Petroff
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 44, no 3, 817-32 (2012)
Editorial note by: Gernot Neugebauer, David Petroff and Bahram Mashhoon p. 771
Biography by: Hubert Goenner p. 776 (Bach)
See bio for GO43 (Weyl)
                57 The Geometry of Free Fall and Light Propagation
By Jürgen Ehlers , Felix A. E. Pirani and Alfred Schild
Originally published: General relativity, papers in honour of J. L. Synge, edited by L. O'Reifeartaigh. Oxford, Clarendon Press 1972, pp. 63-84.
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 44, no 6, 1587-609 (2012)
Editorial note by: Andrzej Trautman, p. 1581-6
Biography by: See bios for GO44 (Ehlers)
GO42(b) (Pirani)
in memoriam Gen. Rel. Grav. 8, no 11, 955-6 (1977) (Schild)
                58 Relativistic Cosmology
By H. P. Robertson
Originally published: Rev. Mod. Phys. 5, 62-90 (1933).
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 44, no 8, 2115-44 (2012)
Editorial note by: George Ellis p. 2099-109
Biography by: Andrzej Krasiński p. 2109-11
                59 On the Formal Analogy between the Basic Electromagnetic Equations and Einstein's Gravity Equations in First Approximation
By Hans Thirring
Originally published: Physikalische Zeitschrift 19, 204-5 (1918).
Original title: Über die Formale Analogie zwischen den Elektromagnetischen Grundgleichungen und den Einsteinschen Gravitationsgleichungen Erster Näherung
Translated by: Herbert Pfister
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 44, no 12, 3225-9 (2012)
Editorial note by: Herbert Pfister p. 3217-21
Biography by: Andrzej Krasiński p. 3221-4
                60 A Homogeneous Universe of Constant Mass and Increasing Radius Accounting for the Radial Velocity of Extra-Galactic Nebulae
By Georges Lemaître
Originally published: Annales de la Société Scientifique de Bruxelles A47, 49-59 (1927).
Original title: Un univers homogene de masse constante et de rayon croissant, rendant compte de la vitesse radiale des nébuleuses extra-galactiques
Translated by: Jean-Pierre Luminet
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 45, no 8, 1635-46 (2013)
Editorial note by: Jean-Pierre Luminet p. 1619-33
Biography by: See bio for GO2
                61 Contributions to the Theory of Pure Gravitational Radiation. Exact Solutions of the Field Equations of the General Theory of Relativity II
By Pascual Jordan , Jürgen Ehlers and Rainer K. Sachs
Originally published: Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur, Abhandlungen der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse Nr 1, 1-62 (1961).
Original title: Beiträge zur Theorie der reinen Gravitationsstrahlung, Strenge Lösungen der Feldgleichungen der Allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie II
Translated by: Jörg Frauendiener
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 45, no 12, 2691-753 (2013)
Editorial note by: Malcolm A. H. MacCallum and Wolfgang Kundt p. 2683-9
Biography by: See bios for GO44 (Jordan, Ehlers)
GO35 (Sachs)
                62 Geometrodynamics in the null case. Exact Solutions of the Field Equations of the General Theory of Relativity III
By Pascual Jordan and Wolfgang Kundt
Originally published: Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur, Abhandlungen der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse Nr 3, 85-97 (1961).
Original title: Geometrodynamik im Nullfall. Strenge Lösungen der Feldgleichungen der Allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie III
Translated by: Wolfgang Kundt
GRG GO Reference: Gen. Rel. Grav. 46, no 3, 1659, 1-14 (2014)
Editorial note by: Charles Misner p. 1658
Biography by: See bios for GO44